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Hppsc previous year questions paper with solution in details

1. In which year Shimla was declared as the summer capital of British India? 
(c) 1864

2. Where is Asia's Largest Hydro Project Nathpa Jhakri Power Corp. situated? 
(a) Spiti (b) Sarhan (c) Kinnaur (d) Rampur

3. Rampur is located at the bank of .... river .
(a) Sutluj (b) Beas (c) Ravi (d) None of the above

4. Which is the State Animal of  HimachalPradesh?
(a) Deer (b) Snow leopard  (c) Lion (d) Jackel

5. Shimla has literacy rate of ....

100 HPPSC Previous year GK Questions with solutions



1. Who is Forest Minister? (D) Thakur Singh Bharmouri
2. Who is food and civil supplier Minister?  (B) G. S. Bali 
3. Bandli sanctuary located in— (B) Mandi
4. What are the total No. of Panchayat in Shimla district?

Urban planning and development - Pgdupdl details scope experience

Post graduation diploma in urban planning and development deals with processes, issues, activities etc of urban planning and development.

It helps Organizing and systematizing your study in respect of various components and stages of the program.

It provides me to deepen my knowledge and understanding of urban planning and development.

To develop professional knowledge and skills in formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of urban development projects and programs.

This program will strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of handling various urban development projects and programs. Can act as more resourceful persons in the field.

Masala Bonds : INR Offshore Bonds

Some more important facts about IFC bonds :



FEATURES :



The initial subscription, repayment of principal and coupon will be in dollars but tied to the dollar rupee exchange rate. So for the investor the bond offers the convenience of a dollar denominated bond but the proceeds are linked to the dollar rupee exchange rate.

From the issuer perspective, these are rupee-denominated bonds issued to offshore investors settled in dollars and, therefore, the currency risk resides with investors. The investor set is more broad-based than just FIIs (foreign institutional investors), as these instruments can usually be sold to other investors who prefer the fact that these are listed and cleared offshore.

The cost of hedging the currency risk involved in foreign currency borrowings takes away part of the advantage of lower borrowing costs. Allowing companies to issue rupee-denominated bonds will transfer any currency risk to the investor rather than the seller.

The offshore bond program will have important benefits for the Indian capital markets, including:

Bringing liquidity and depth to the offshore rupee market
Crowding in foreign investors to invest in rupee bonds
Encouraging other issuers to offshore markets
Paving the way for an alternative source of funding for Indian companies
Providing alternative hedging mechanisms for foreign investors
Oct 2013 – IFC launched $1 billion offshore rupee bond program (later increased to USD 2 Bn), the first time rupee-denominated debt had been issued offshore to invest within India. The bonds to be linked to the local currency and the proceeds will be used “to finance private sector investment in the country.

Nov-14 : issued a 10-year, Rs.1,000 crore bond (equivalent to $163 million) to support infrastructure development in India by mobilizing international capital markets and coined it as Masala Bonds.

Masala bonds are the first rupee bonds listed on the London Stock Exchange. Though there are other offshore rupee bonds, this issuance was the first to be listed on a stock exchange. They are the longest-dated bonds in the offshore rupee markets, building on earlier offshore rupee issuances by IFC at three-, five-, and seven-year maturities. However, these earlier bond issuances were not issued under the nomenclature of masala bonds.

The yield is 6.3 per cent and it is almost two percentage points lower than the rate at which the Government of India itself can raise money.

Apr-15 : RBI in its quarterly policy has said said it would allow companies to sell rupee-denominated bonds overseas.

IFCI has launched the rupee-denominated offshore bonds for Rs 1,600 crore or about $250 million, attracting first time investors to the overseas rupee markets. They have offered 6.45% rate with three and a half year maturity.

IFCs Other issuances : In March 2014 IFC became the first multilateral institution to list renminbi-denominated bonds on the London Stock Exchange, which was followed by the issuance of IFC’s first renminbi-denominated green bonds in June 2014. 

Prior to 2014, IFC pioneered the international issuance of renminbi-denominated bonds in China (Panda bonds) and Hong Kong (Dim Sum bonds). IFC was also the first to set up a program to regularly issue offshore renminbi-denominated discount notes.

They also have an onshore Bond program - IFC announced a $2.5 billion equivalent onshore rupee bond program in August 2014 that will finance infrastructure projects. This is coined as Maharaja Bonds.  They sold the debut tranche of around USD 100 mio in Sep-14. High quality global journalism requires investment.

$100m bond issuance included about $50m worth of conventional five-year and 10-year bonds, and $50m in two “more innovative” instruments with maturities of up to 20 years, which are designed to help the IFC match its financing to the requirements of longer-term infrastructure projects. The Co. expected to exhaust the entire $2.5bn facility “within 4-5 years. The five- and 10-year bonds were priced at about 50 basis points sold below the India sovereign curve, the five-year at 8.0 per cent and the 10-year at 7.97 per cent.

The IFC’s bond issue marks the second time an international body has raised onshore rupee debt. The Asian Development Bank sold a bond worth about $80m at current exchange rates in 2004.

Basically, their offshore bond program is like a EUROBOND - an international bond that is denominated in a currency not native to the country where it is issued.
& the onshore bond program is like a foreign bond - A bond that is issued in a domestic market by a foreign entity, in the domestic market's currency. Many of these issues have colorful nicknames such as:

Yankee bonds: dollar-denominated bonds which are issued by non-American borrowers in the U.S. market.

Samurai bonds: yen-denominated bonds which are issued by non-Japanese borrowers in the Japanese market.

Bulldog bonds: pound sterling-denominated bonds which are issued by non-British borrowers in the British market.

Urbanization in India characteristics population issues, poverty and development


Discuss the recent trends in urbanisation in India and briefly describe the main characteristics and problems of the major Indian cities.


The variation in the share of urban to total population across the states is high. 
A large proportion of urban is currently concentrated in six most developed states, namely Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Punjab and West Bengal, accounting for about half of the country's urban population.

NE states have recorded rapid pace of urbanization due to the process of their becoming economically integrated with the national economy. 
The smaller towns in the backward states, on the other hand, have languished economically and reported low or negative demographic growth, many of them even failing to meet the criteria for being classified as urban centre.


Characteristics of cities:

Most Indian cities have not separated residential and other functions to the same extent as occidental towns.

Large numbers of towns are primarily administrative: they may have been local commercial centres and market villages picked as headquarters of districts or their sub-divisions mainly on account of centrality.

Problems of major cities:

1. Urban Sprawl

Indian cities have grown tremendously—not only in population, but in geographic size. For instance, Delhi’s urban area has almost doubled in the last 20 years. Sprawling cities and reliance on automobiles have contributed to traffic congestion, air pollution, rising greenhouse gas emissions, and poor public health.

2. Traffic Safety and Accessibility

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 10 percent of the world’s road fatalities (130,000) occur in India alone. Safety and accessibility are key components of ensuring that cities become secure, sustainable places to live.

3. Future Real Estate Development

Development of infrastructure by least pollutant methods is biggest challenge to future estate development.



Urbanization has seen a new trend in India against old tradition of developing growth poles like metropolitan cities, small towns and districts are being developed at least with minimum basic facility requirements.Government programmes like JNNURM,100 smart city,Digital India, swatch bharat abhiyan, new impetus in real estate development along with well planned urban area having facility of highway connectivity,planned sewage system, world class railway stations, small airports, AIIMS and similar facility hospitals in other cities,educational institutes, development of tourism etc.has helped in distributive urbanization of various town and cities.


Main characteristics of major Indian cities are:

1)Well planned world class infrastructure which are well equipped to cope up increasing population load like road,buildings,electricity,water supply, health etc.

2)They have become major center for employment including Manufacturing, business ,IT and other service sector hubs.

3)They are one of the big tourism destinations.This reflects the way of urbanization without destruction of their rich heritage ex- Delhi, kolkata .


Problems of major cities :

1)Increasing migration of people from undeveloped regions exerts huge pressure on city infrastructure.

2)Urban sprawl and slow pace of development in order to accommodate this increasing population.

3)tremendous traffic results in pollution affecting health of residents.

4)Hectic schedule of life and unhealthy eating habits has resulted into various psychological disorders and other diseases.



India being a developing country can always re-look into its urbanization programme to effectively curb all kinds of short comings which present few major cities face.Sustainable development, in order to provide all basic facilities, to all towns and districts so that need of migration itself can be reduced, can help in better modernization of whole India.


Urban heat island effect?

An urban heat island is the name given to describe the characteristic warmth of both the atmosphere and surfaces in cities (urban areas) compared to their (non-urbanized) surroundings. The heat island is an example of unintentional climate modification when urbanization changes the characteristics of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere.


Causes of Urban Heat Island:


1.Reduced vegetation in urban regions :

Reduces the natural cooling effect from shade and evapotranspiration.

2.Properties of urban materials:

Materials commonly used in urban areas for pavement and roofs, such as concrete and asphalt, have significantly different thermal bulk properties and surface radiative properties than the surrounding rural areas. This causes a change in the energy balance of the urban area, often leading to higher temperatures than surrounding rural areas.

3.Urban geometry:

The height and spacing of buildings affects the amount of radiation received and emitted by urban infrastructure. The tall buildings within many urban areas provide multiple surfaces for the reflection and absorption of sunlight, increasing the
efficiency with which urban areas are heated.

4.Weather:

Certain conditions, such as clear skies and calm winds, can foster urban heat island formation.

5.Geographic location:

Proximity to large water bodies and mountainous terrain can influence local wind patterns and urban heat island formation.

6.Human Activities :

Air conditioning, manufacturing, transportation, fossil fuel combustion and other human activities discharge heat into urban environments.

7.Pollution :

High levels of pollution in urban areas can also increase the UHI, as many forms of pollution change the radiative properties of the atmosphere.

Consequences of Urban Heat Islands:

1.Impaired air quality :

Warmer air accelerates the formation of smog (ozone) from airborne pollutants like nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Elevated demand for cooling energy in the form of Air conditioning and Refrigerator use can also increase the emission of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from fossil-fuel power plants.

2.Impact on Health :

Higher air temperatures and lower air quality can cause heat-related and respiratory illnesses,

3.Effect on Weather :

It may also increase cloudiness and precipitation in the city, as a thermal circulation sets up between the city and surrounding region.

4.Impact on Plants and Forest :

High temperatures may create disturbances on ornamental plants and urban forests.

5.Impact on water bodies :

It may increase temperatures of urban water bodies which lead to a decrease in diversity in the water.

To reduce the effect of urban heat island,there is need to decrease anthropogenic heat emissions through energy efficiency technologies in the building and vehicle sectors.Also there is need to modify vegetative cover and surface properties of urban materials.



Urban heat island is phenomenon in which average temperature of pockets of metropolitian area is higher than that of surrounding towns.

Causes of creation of heat islands are
1) Evapotranspiration rate in the city is lower than that of the villages so heat get trapped and results in elevated temperature.
2) Dry impervious surfaces are high in the cities like pavements, roads etc. That absorb heat in day time but evaporate very slowly.
3)Tall buildings, less trees and type of building materials are also responsible for high temp.
4)Higher industrial pollution as compared to surrounding towns.

Consequences of Urban heat island

1) Impared water quality.
2) Elevated emission of air pollutants and GHG.
3)Compramised human health.
4)Impared water Quality.

There are some good consequences also such as increased life cycle of plant in Urban Area and relatively less chilly winter nights but that did not qualify as conciliatory argument. 

Reducing pollution,environment friendly building structures and increasing canopy of trees in the cities are some of the measures we should apply for mitigating this effect. It is high time stressing on these measures while we are going to develop smart cities.

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