Human Development meaning and approach-concept, issues and method of driving HDI

Development is a easy word to say but very complex word to define.

Human Development is a process of enlarging people's choices, enhancement of freedoms and fulfillment of human rights.



Human development has been accepted in development economics literature as

  1. Expansion of human capabilities 
  2. Widening of choices
  3. Enhancement of freedoms 
  4. Fulfillment of  human rights 
Four main pillars of human developments are 
  1. Equity 
  2. efficiency and productivity
  3. participation and employment 
  4. sustainability 

these various factors influencing Human Development. 



Human development can be simply defined as a process of enlarging choices. Every day human beings make a series of choices – some economic, some social, some political, some cultural. 




If people are the proper focus of development efforts, then these efforts should be geared to enhancing the range of choices in all areas of human endeavor for every human being. 

Human development is both a process and an outcome. It is concerned with the
process through which choices are enlarged, but it also focuses on the outcomes of enhanced choices. 

Human development thus defined represents a simple notion, but one with far-reaching implications. 


Economic Development and Human development are positively correlated and dependent on each other. 

While economic development is possible because of Developed:

1. Human resources

2. Transport system.

3. Infrastructure to support and boost economy

4. Pleasant climate

5. Mineral, agriculture and strong primary sector.

and Human Development is composite measurement of:

1. Life Expectancy

2. Income

3. Education

As it is clear that Economic development strongly depends on Human Resource. For ex. Japan lacks in Pleasant climate and primary sector but still is economically prosperous nation because of huge investment in Human Resource development in last 5 decades. 

Hence, they are technology and industrial leaders in robotics and automobiles which needs vast R&D. Same is case of California, New York which have high Human development because of economic advancement and vice-versa.

Economic Development requires a buffer time of one generation life span to develop a nation and uplift it from poverty. For ex after Hiroshima & Nagasaki bomb disaster. Japan was economically devastated. 
First thing it did was to invest in Human resource development and resulted in economic boom within 15 years and restoration of both metropolitan in 10 years. 
Hence For a nation to realise her dream of economically strong first has to focus on Human development viz. education, infrastructure and Health.


The human-development concept encompasses additional choices and goals, processes and outcomes that are highly valued by people,
ranging from political, economic and social freedom to opportunities for being creative and productive, and enjoying personal self-respect and guaranteed human rights. 

The notion of human development emphasizes enlargement of choices in these areas as well.
In the societal and cultural context of the world, such wider choices regarding
freedom, human rights, knowledge acquisition and the institutional context are especially critical. 
No notion of human development can be relevant and effective unless it addresses these crucial issues both analytically and empirically.


Arab Human development report 2002 : read about it.
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