Urban Indian Society Problem Solution development trends

In the light of recent political trends, we have critically examined the impact of urban politics on urbanization and urban development in India’s major cities.

Urbanisation is at a rapid pace in today's India. Many reasons like economic opportunities, better social standards, better knowledge etc are pushing the rural India towards the Metros and other major cities. Urban politics too have significant contribution in urbanisation process and the recent resurgence of AAP as the largest party in Delhi is a true evidence of this.

Delhi can be a case study for impact of urban politics on urbanization. It is a cosmopolitan society with varied classes, religious people living. Decline in Caste based politics, awareness among the urban residents, increase in literacy rates, change in demographics with more youth arriving at metros etc are in a way responsible for the change in thinking of average urban resident and his decisions to wards elections and leaders. This impacted the politics of urban areas and inturn establishing accountability of politician towards common man. It further increased urbanisation and is slowly turning out as a vicious cycle.

The usage of RTI, discussions in media and public forums, accessibility to information, anti-corruption movements by common people etc have raised expectations of people from politicians and the real need for development of cities is felt by all including politicians. Despite central sponsored development like Metro trains, roads, airports etc, there is a growing pressure from citizens on governments in major cities like Kolkata, Hyderabad etc for better delivery of services, reduction in corruption, improvement in day to day administration. With the rise of middle class and youth in India coupled with Urbanisation, Indian cities are becoming the real engines for galvanising the growth trend.

India is on it’s path and dream of Urbanisation. There is no doubt that all developed nations has Urbanisation as their backbone which generates taxes, jobs, innovation, revenues for government to run a nation. But, Urbanisation is also prone to politics unlike Science and Innovation.

Urban people are higher on gender equality, economic empowerment, literacy, awareness, connectivity with politicians through media, critiques of politics. These makes Urban politics more dynamic and accountable than rural politics.

Some Impacts of Urban politics on Urbanisation and Development are:

(1.) Urban politics engage educated and secondary sector people who needs harmony rich environment for them. This encourage politicians not to strive for communal politics rather a growth and result oriented politics. Hence, development is main focus.

(2.) Urbanisation greatest problem is transport, population density and public goods. These are shared by both poor and rich. Hence, urban politics stops differentiating between rich and poor. Such facilities also helps in urbanisation which is actually providing good services to all and act as Pull factor for rural population.

(3.) Urban politics focusses on feedback mechanism which leads to cater exactly what public needs. This leads less wastage of public money and political energy.

Hence, Urban politics leads to healthy and balanced urbanisation.

2014 Lok Sabha elections in India, dubbed as "India's first Social Media Elections" highlights the changing modes of political mobilization in Urban India. The extensive use of modern techniques in urban electorates had larger impacts on urbanization and urban development in the following ways:
-TECH SAVY: The election campaigns in recent months are carried out through various information and communication technologies which enhance transparency, proximity, updation and citizen participation in national issues.
-CONNECTIVITY: Social media played a vital role in promoting interaction between the leaders and citizens (especially youth) which enabled them to follow decision making processes and hold decisions about issues of common concern in the virtual world. It is even argued that this connectivity resulted in increased voter turnout (mainly youth) in major cities.
-NEW POLICIES: Addressing the concerns of youth in major cities many new policies were framed to ensure women safety (through apps, etc), 'smart city' planning that includes technologies in all aspects thus developing the urban cities at global standards.
-LACK OF ADDRESS ON LOCAL ISSUES: However, these improvements in e-campaigning did not address all the people as it is estimated that just 12% of the total population is covered in virtual world. So, some of the regional and local issues were not addressed properly by these modern trends of urban politics. Eg, Slums, which are often treated as vote banks do not show much development and mostly ignored from national policies.
Thus, the modern trends of politics had reached the largest youth population making them responsible enough to engage in politics and improving the urban cities towards a new scale of development. However, it has some disadvantages of not bringing a wholesome benefit especially to its invisible population in slums of urban cities.

Financial Education Project Financial Literacy

To increases financial services in the country financial education is given out to people in different forms.In this post, we will discuss Regarding information for Central Bank + general Banking Concepts.

Financial Services Helpful for Various target groups of the country citizens.
  • Schools and college going, children.
  • Women
  • Rural and urban Poor
  • Defence personals  
  • Senior Citizens

This project is basically has been design to be implemented under two modules 

Dsssb interview questions experience

Delay authority another name for dsssb by all candidates is no more shaken up.
As Delhi subordinate services selection board is delayed there selection process not just one year.  

But as any as 6years in some post codes. 

Recently one of our reader gave there JE interview experience held at there head office in karkardooma.

The JE - E&M is a post of 2012 recruitment process with post code 14/12.

There are 251 candidates called for interview against 32 general advertised posts. 

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[IES] 2015 Answer key, Cutoff, Papers with solutions Indian Engineering Service

Comment at the end of the post for your required need and question papers.

IES Exams General Ability 2015 Question paper solution is uploaded Please check and share your score in a comment section where this post ends. You can also bookmark this page for your future reference and more updation on consolidated answer keys for Indian Engineering Service Examination conducted by UPSC annually on a process.

Answer key for IES 2015 by different Coaching institutes concatenated at one place i.e. UPSC-Exams only.

Paper 1 - General Ability Test 

You can also save image and zoom by click on it. 

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Paper 2 - Objective Paper 

For different engineering branch 

Electronics Engineering - Made Easy Key
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Paper 3 - Objective Paper 

For different engineering branch 
Electronics Engineering - Key from Made Easy
Mechanical Engineering - Made Easy Key
Civil Engineering - Download Made Easy Key
Electrical Engineering - Made Easy Key Download 

Paper 4 - Conventional Paper 

For different engineering branch
Electrical Engineering - 
Mechanical Engineering - 
Civil Engineering - 
Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering - 

Paper 5 - Conventional Paper

For different engineering branch
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Mechanical Engineering - 
Civil Engineering - 
Electronics and communication Engineering - 

As this page for Indian Engineering Service will be updated on priority basis with regular interval of time by you people for you people only. Feel free to discuss any thing or recommend your valuable suggestions and changes in comment section below for Indian Engineering Service.

Reliability and Validity of measuring Instrument and its Importance

Reliability:  Reliability means consistency with which the instrument yields similar results. 

Validity: Validity is the ability of a measuring instrument to actually measure what it claim to measure.  

These are basic concept of reliability and Validity.

[LMRCL] Lucknow Metro Rail Previous year exam papers


LMRCL Recruitment - Lucknow Metro Rail 2015
This thread is for those preparing for Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation Limited (LMRCL) Recruitment Exam - 2015.

Link to Recruitment Page - https://www.digialm.com/EForms/html/form2399/index.html

Link to LMRCL Website - http://www.lmrcl.com/


Dates for Making Application Fee Payment 20.05.2015 to 20.06.2015

Start Date and Last date for Filling the Online Application Form 21.05.2015 to 21.06.2015

Admit Card Download 24.06.2015 – 28.06.2015

Exam Date 28.06.2015


[Project Monitoring] and its Indicators with smart indicators

Monitoring is the regular observation and recording of activities taking place in a project or a program. Project Monitoring is a process of routinely gathering information on all aspects of the project. 

What do you mean by monitoring of projects? Explain different types of monitoring indicators. 

Project appraisal, Performance management tool : Project and Programmes, appraisal of a Project

Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes 

Various criteria for project appraisal, discounting and non- discounting techniques of project appraisal can be discussed. but lets starts with basics where many people are uncertain about the diffidence between a project and a program.

Urban heat island effect

Urban heat island effect?

An urban heat island is the name given to describe the characteristic warmth of both the atmosphere and surfaces in cities (urban areas) compared to their (non-urbanized) surroundings. The heat island is an example of unintentional climate modification when urbanization changes the characteristics of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere.

Causes of Urban Heat Island:

1.Reduced vegetation in urban regions :

Reduces the natural cooling effect from shade and evapotranspiration.

2.Properties of urban materials:

Materials commonly used in urban areas for pavement and roofs, such as concrete and asphalt, have significantly different thermal bulk properties and surface radioactive properties than the surrounding rural areas. This causes a change in the energy balance of the urban area, often leading to higher temperatures than surrounding rural areas.

3.Urban geometry:

The height and spacing of buildings affects the amount of radiation received and emitted by urban infrastructure. The tall buildings within many urban areas provide multiple surfaces for the reflection and absorption of sunlight, increasing the
efficiency with which urban areas are heated.


Certain conditions, such as clear skies and calm winds, can foster urban heat island formation.

5.Geographic location:

Proximity to large water bodies and mountainous terrain can influence local wind patterns and urban heat island formation.

6.Human Activities :

Air conditioning, manufacturing, transportation, fossil fuel combustion and other human activities discharge heat into urban environments.

7.Pollution :

High levels of pollution in urban areas can also increase the UHI, as many forms of pollution change the radioactive properties of the atmosphere.

Consequences of Urban Heat Islands:

1.Impaired air quality :

Warmer air accelerates the formation of smog (ozone) from airborne pollutants like nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Elevated demand for cooling energy in the form of Air conditioning and Refrigerator use can also increase the emission of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from fossil-fuel power plants.

2.Impact on Health :

Higher air temperatures and lower air quality can cause heat-related and respiratory illnesses,

3.Effect on Weather :

It may also increase cloudiness and precipitation in the city, as a thermal circulation sets up between the city and surrounding region.

4.Impact on Plants and Forest :

High temperatures may create disturbances on ornamental plants and urban forests.

5.Impact on water bodies :

It may increase temperatures of urban water bodies which lead to a decrease in diversity in the water.

To reduce the effect of urban heat island,there is need to decrease anthropocentric heat emissions through energy efficiency technologies in the building and vehicle sectors.Also there is need to modify vegetative cover and surface properties of urban materials.

Urban heat island is phenomenon in which average temperature of pockets of metropolitan area is higher than that of surrounding towns.

Causes of creation of heat islands are
1) Evapotranspiration rate in the city is lower than that of the villages so heat get trapped and results in elevated temperature.
2) Dry impervious surfaces are high in the cities like pavements, roads etc. That absorb heat in day time but evaporate very slowly.
3)Tall buildings, less trees and type of building materials are also responsible for high temp.
4)Higher industrial pollution as compared to surrounding towns.

Install numerous saplings. Once  these saplings grow, they will act as a large CO2 sink. 
They will also gaurd against dust and improve air quality.
Plantations can reduce temperature by blocking sunlight.
Further cooling can occur when water evaporates from the leaves.
They can reduce the urban heat island (UHI) effect around the area where plantation will take place. 
Surface that were permeable and green have been concretized as a result of urbanisation. These changes cause urbanized area to be much warmer than surrounding green areas. 

Once the tree grow, the thick foliage will act as a buffer against noise pollution. 
They can also provide a habitat for birds and other wildlife. 
One large tree can provide a day's supply of oxygen for up to four people. Trees can also check soil erosion. 
Some plants improve soil quality by fixing nitrogen. Humas formed here will store carbon. 
The plantation can check desertification and loss of biodiversity
Besides acting as catchments for water bodies, areas can be excellent rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge site. 

Consequences of Urban heat island

1) Impaired water quality.
2) Elevated emission of air pollutants and GHG.
3) Compromised human health.
4) Impaired water Quality.

There are some good consequences also such as increased life cycle of plant in Urban Area and relatively less chilly winter nights but that did not qualify as conciliatory argument. 
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